In the "El Salado" estuary four types of vegetation have been identified: semi-deciduous forest, mangrove, swamp, aquatic and underwater vegetation. Additionally there have been found sequences of these elements caused by anthropogenic activities.
The semi-deciduous forest is composed of 15 dominant species that belong to 8 different families. This estuary has an approximate area of .77 square miles ( 2 km²), divided into two small relict located at opposite ends of the estuary (close to the mouth and the head). The most representative species that stand out are: Acrocomia mexicana, Orbygnia cohune, Pitechellobium lanceolatum y three species of Ficus.
The mangrove is the dominant type of vegetation of the region. It covers 126.6 acres of the area. There are three species of mangrove distributed perpendicularly to the single channel of the estuary; Rhizophora mangle, Laguncularia racemosa y Avicennia germinans. The most abundant is the last species named.
Pithecellobium lanceolatum, P. sweet, Acacia hindsii y A. micrantha, are archetypal of the thorn forest, which forms a stitched belt around the limits estuary limits and the human settlements, which does not exceeds the 0.5km². In the past the semi- deciduous forest and the thorn forest used to dominate the land that today that is now invaded by human settlements and agriculture.
The marsh that encompass the area around the mangroves and has an approximate area of 32 ha and its main species are: Sporobolus splendens and Batis maritima, which are widely distributed. There exist another 4 species and a characteristic type in the place. These terrains are flooded regularly because of the tides and during summer time during the rain streams are formed that flow to the main channel of the estuary.
The aquatic and sub aquatic vegetation are formed by 15 different species and a genre that are mainly distributed to the shore of the water mirror that is near the top of the estuary, there´re also small pits of old brick makers that used to be in the area. The most abundant are Thypa domingensis, Pistia statiotes and Salix humboldtiana carcateristic plants of the Tular, Popal and gallery forest. In addition to these there are large portions dominated by the Mimosa Pigra. This section does not exceed 0.4 km²
Studies in the area have been able to conclude that more than 100 species of births live in the estuary that can be divided in 23 different families that have aquatic and/or land earthbound habits. The presence and abundance of these species in each of the studies realized throughout the year is variable. More than 29 species of amphibians and reptiles plus 10 types of mammals and a great variety of invertebrates and fish typical of mangrove areas have been sighted too.
It is important to highlight the presence of other groups of animals in the area, that present some vulnerability and others a possible use. Among the reptiles the iguana (iguana iguana), the Mexican spiny-tailed iguana (Ctenosaura pectinata) and the American crocodile (Crocodylus acutus). The raccoon (Procyon lotor) and the opossum (Didelphis virginiana) are mmamls that have been sighted in the mangroove. The marsh and the mangrove have abundant populations of the Fiddler crab (Uca crenulata) and the mouthless crab (Cardisoma crassum). It should be noted that the estuary is home to a large number of specimens of flora and fauna under government protection according to the laws: NOM-059-SEMARNAT-2001 and the NOM-022-SEMARNAT-2003.